sábado, 2 de septiembre de 2006

Industrias en Latinoamérica

En Latinoamérica aranceles elevados, múltiples barreras no-tarifarias y tipos de cambio sobrevaluados dificultaban las exportaciones, puesto que encarecían los bienes de exportación. La industria se veía limitada a los mercados internos que —en su mayoría— eran pequeños. De este modo, no se producían las ventajas de la producción en masa. El sector industrial obtenía pocos ingresos en divisas, pero requería de importaciones de gran envergadura, en cuanto a insumos y bienes de capital. En la medida en que crecía el sector industrial, también aumentaba la demanda por divisas. Por lo tanto, el proceso de industrialización dependía de los ingresos de exportación provenientes del sector agrícola y de materias primas, así como de las importaciones de capital desde el extranjero. Este esquema no se pudo mantener después de la drástica caída de los precios de los bienes primarios. Los escasos incrementos de productividad restringían las posibilidades de aumentar los salarios reales y, de este modo, limitaban los potenciales internos de crecimiento. Por otra parte, los excedentes disponibles para realizar inversiones eran tan limitados que los países dependían del ahorro extranjero. El Estado (a menudo administrativamente débil), con funciones de control, fomentaba una mentalidad de subvenciones en las empresas y acarreaba problemas como la corrupción, el clientelismo y el déficit fiscal crónico que frecuentemente era financiado por medio de una inflación galopante. En cualquier proceso de industrialización la protección de las industrias infantes representa un instrumento esencial. Sin embargo, en la estrategia de industrialización latinoamericana éste era el objetivo central, y la protección de las industrias infantes degeneraba en un instrumento permanente que les permitía a las empresas obtener rentas improductivas.

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